Medical detective. Were there any medical detectives in history?
The first season of the Voskresensky TV series has ended. Not & nbsp; without reason, his hero was called the Russian Sherlock Holmes. I wonder if the detective doctor had a real prototype? And & nbsp; in general, were there & nbsp; in history, doctors who moonlight as detectives?
We & nbsp; conducted our own investigation and & nbsp; found something interesting. If we talk about & nbsp; Arkady Gavrilovich, this is the name of the main character of the series, then & nbsp; his image is tailored according to & nbsp; image and & nbsp; likeness not & nbsp; of some specific doctor, but & nbsp; the main detective of all times and & nbsp; peoples.
And & nbsp; the prototype of Holmes himself was a surgeon known in & nbsp; England & nbsp; & mdash; Professor Joseph Bell … Deductive method & nbsp; & mdash; his creative idea, he amazed all his contemporaries with it. Only after looking at the & nbsp; patient, and & nbsp; not asking & nbsp; a single question, Bell told the students what kind of & nbsp; man he was, who he & nbsp; works, where he lives and & nbsp; brought a lot of other facts from & nbsp; his life. Conan Doyle saw this many, many times, because while studying at the University of Edinburgh, he was Bell's assistant. Many such stories he & nbsp; included in his detective epic. The only demonstration of this method was not & nbsp; surgeon Bell, but & nbsp; Detective Holmes.
Remember his first meeting with & nbsp; Watson, when immediately after greeting Sherlock says: “ I see you & nbsp; came from & nbsp; Afghanistan. '' The doctor was shocked. But & nbsp; then he & nbsp; observed the accuracy of Holmes' deductive method all the time. Conan Doyle himself did not & nbsp; hide who was the prototype of the famous detective. In & nbsp; his memoirs, he & nbsp; wrote: “It is not surprising that, knowing a man like J. Bell, I used and & nbsp; developed his methods when I later tried to create the image of a detective.” So Holmes has the brains of a doctor. And & nbsp; this is understandable, because the deductive method is very close to & nbsp; so-called clinical thinking. By the & nbsp; will of the author, the detective owned it & nbsp; better than a professional doctor & nbsp; & mdash; Watson.
Dr. Joseph Bell. Source: Public Domain
There was a real detective doctor, and & nbsp; you & nbsp; know him
But & nbsp; was there a real doctor in the & nbsp; story who used this kind of thinking in & nbsp; detective investigations? Hardly & nbsp; were there a lot of them, we managed to find only one. And & nbsp; you & nbsp; know him. This is the greatest medics of all time and & nbsp; peoples & nbsp; & mdash; William Harvey … It was he & nbsp; in & nbsp; 1628 & nbsp; g. was the first to describe the systemic circulation, showing the delusional nature of all past ideas about the & nbsp; work of the heart and & nbsp; vessels. Experimental and deductive methods helped him to make a discovery. But & nbsp; his discovery was met with hostility, rational thought then was not & nbsp; in & nbsp; honor. Scientists continued to adhere to dogma, and & nbsp; not & nbsp; facts. And & nbsp; in & nbsp; that & nbsp; time there was a very active hunt for witches.
Rejection of Harvey's colleagues did not & nbsp; and & nbsp; from & nbsp; his views he did & nbsp; did & nbsp; refuse. His reputation remained high, and & nbsp; he & nbsp; became not & nbsp; just King Charles' medic & nbsp; I , but & nbsp; and & nbsp; close to & nbsp; man. As a doctor, he often accompanied the monarch on his trips around the country. In & nbsp; 1632, they arrived in the town of Newmarket, where they told Harvey about a & nbsp; local witch, who was helped in & nbsp; black affairs by her & nbsp; toad. The scientist did not & nbsp; very much believe in & nbsp; these miracles, and & nbsp; he had a plan for the most real detective investigation. He decided to check if this woman was really a witch or not.
Hunt for & nbsp; witches
In modern terms, William Harvey conducted a special operation, infiltrating the & nbsp; lair of the witch. He & nbsp; came to & nbsp; her and & nbsp; introduced himself as a sorcerer. The scientist played this role successfully, the woman believed him, and feeling a kindred spirit, she even showed her familiar (assistant). After clicking her tongue, she called the toad out from under the closet and & nbsp; gave her milk. Harvey suggested to “ wash '' acquaintance, and & nbsp; gave a shilling, asked her & nbsp; to bring beer. While she went after & nbsp; him, the great anatomist was engaged in a business well known to him. He & nbsp; opened the toad, and & nbsp; saw that it was completely ordinary. Exactly the same & nbsp; as & nbsp; dozens, if not & nbsp; hundreds of others that Harvey has dissected earlier.
I must say that he & nbsp; opened a huge number of various animals, sometimes still alive. By practicing vivisection, Harvey and & nbsp; laid the foundations of physiology. I understand that animal activists will not really & nbsp; like it, but & nbsp; it's a fact. I am not & nbsp; too & nbsp; delighted with & nbsp; this cruel method of research, but & nbsp; I am aware that without it modern medicine & nbsp; would not be & nbsp;. We can say that Harvey was the first physiologist: vivisectors were & nbsp; before & nbsp; but & nbsp; very few people did it with & nbsp; benefit for science and & nbsp; got as much important information about & nbsp; the work of the body as & nbsp; he did. However, and & nbsp; anatomy remained very close to him. For & nbsp; throughout his life, he almost & nbsp; did not & nbsp; dissect troupes every day, lecturing to students and & nbsp; doing his own research.
William Harvey. Photo: Public Domain
Scientific logic and & nbsp; common sense
The fact that the witch's familiar was no & nbsp; different from & nbsp; other toads, according to & nbsp; Harvey's opinion irrefutably testified that a woman does not & nbsp; possess any witchcraft, and & nbsp; to be afraid of her & nbsp; charms does not & nbsp; itself should she considered herself a witch). But & nbsp; he soon had to regret the & nbsp; results of his investigation, when the woman returned, she attacked the & nbsp; scientist and & nbsp; was ready to tear him to pieces in & nbsp; reality, no & nbsp; resorting to any & nbsp; & nbsp; any magic. Only his intellect saved him. Harvey managed to explain that he & nbsp; saved a woman from & nbsp; certain death, which she & nbsp; shone like a witch. And & nbsp; that & nbsp; he allegedly came to & nbsp; her on the & nbsp; assignment of the king to check whether she was a witch or not. And & nbsp; if & nbsp; would have really turned out to be a witch, then & nbsp; her days & nbsp; were numbered. These rational arguments reached the & nbsp; women, and & nbsp; she forgave the great scientist for the death of her beloved toad.
In the & nbsp; head of the commission for the & nbsp; search for witches
After that, Harvey no longer conducted active detective investigations. But & nbsp; in & nbsp; as a forensic scientist, he was involved in the & nbsp; investigation of crimes. So, in & nbsp; 1634 & nbsp; g. King Charles I & nbsp; involved Harvey in the & nbsp; examination of four women accused of & nbsp; witchcraft. It was necessary to find the secret signs of the witch on their & nbsp; body. It could be either skin areas that are insensitive to pain, or nipples, which, as it was believed, the witch used to feed a toad, rat, spider or some other helper. All these signs of a witch were given in the & nbsp; book Demonology, which was written by Charles' father & nbsp; I, the King of England and & nbsp; Jacob I of Scotland . Harvey headed the commission, which included surgeons and midwives. & Nbsp; three women did not have any signs, and & nbsp; the fourth one found two such stigmata at once. One, as noted in the & nbsp; examination protocol, was similar to & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; nipple & raquo;, the second & nbsp; & mdash; on & nbsp; normal female nipple. That was enough to send her to the & nbsp; bonfire. But & nbsp; Harvey saved the woman by describing these formations in detail, and & nbsp; showing that their resemblance to & nbsp; nipples is only external, and & nbsp; that neither & nbsp; milk, nor & nbsp; any other juices they can not & nbsp; can emit.
< p> Soon the witches' trials began to fade.