January 5, 2022

The curse of the communications commissars. The position that promised execution in the USSR

By Azlyrics

Plot World history with Andrey Sidorchik

From & nbsp; films about the & nbsp; revolution and & nbsp; Civil War, viewers of the Soviet era have clearly learned: the seizure of power is impossible without capturing mail, telephone and & nbsp; telegraph. And & nbsp; indeed, in the & nbsp; the beginning of the & nbsp; XX century, the one who possessed communications received a decisive advantage over his opponents.

To whom typhus, to whom a rusty nail

Leader of the October Revolution and & nbsp ; founder of the Soviet state Vladimir Lenin spoke about & nbsp; this directly: “ Socialism without mail, telegraph, cars & nbsp; & mdash; an empty phrase. ” But for & nbsp; for a long time, this post was practically an analogue of the pirate “ black mark '': those who occupied it faced a tragic outcome.

The first People's Commissar of Posts and Telegraphs of the RSFSR was former typographic worker, and & nbsp; then professional revolutionary Nikolai Glebov-Avilov . He was & nbsp; Commissar until & nbsp; December 1917 & nbsp; year, when the Bolsheviks, having created a coalition with & nbsp; Left Socialist-Revolutionaries, transferred this department & nbsp; them.

Glebov-Avilov subsequently became a trade union leader, but in & nbsp; 1926 he was declared an oppositionist and & nbsp; sent to & nbsp; work as an adviser to the USSR embassy in & nbsp; Italy. In & nbsp; 1929, he & nbsp; became the first director of the Rostselmash plant. In the fall of 1936, the first people's commissar was arrested on charges of & nbsp; terrorism. In the spring of 1937, he & nbsp; was shot.

Prosh Proshyan , a representative of the Left Socialist Revolutionary Party, headed the People's Commissariat of Posts and Telegraphs of the RSFSR until the & nbsp; spring of 1918 & nbsp; when he left the government, protesting against the signing of the Brest Peace.

Proshyan took part in the & nbsp; rebellion of the Left SRs, after which he went underground. He was sentenced in absentia to & nbsp; 3 & nbsp; years in prison, but & nbsp; until & nbsp; it didn & nbsp; didn & nbsp; the former People's Commissar contracted typhus and & nbsp; died on December 16 & nbsp; December 16, 1918 at & nbsp; age 35 & nbsp; years.

Podbelsky became Commissar of Posts and & nbsp; Telegraphs in & nbsp; April 1918 & nbsp; year. With & nbsp; his task, he coped well, at the same time managing to participate in the & nbsp; suppression of counter-revolutionary actions. But & nbsp; in & nbsp; the beginning of 1920, Podbelsky ran his foot on a & nbsp; rusty nail during & nbsp; during the subbotnik. A trifling, at & nbsp; first glance, the trauma led to & nbsp; blood poisoning and & nbsp; death: the People's Commissar died on February 25 & nbsp; 1920 at & nbsp; age 32 & nbsp; years.

When cancer is for & nbsp; happiness

Artemy Lyubovich in his pre-revolutionary specialty he was a telegraph operator, so his appointment as People's Commissar was absolutely logical. He & nbsp; twice headed the communications department: in & nbsp; 1920-1921 in & nbsp; as the acting People's Commissar of Posts and & nbsp; Telegraphs of the RSFSR after the death of Podbelsky and in & nbsp; 1927-1928 in & nbsp; as the acting People's Commissar of Posts and & nbsp;/telegraphs of the USSR p>

The last post of Lyubovich was the post of chairman of the State Planning Committee of the Byelorussian SSR. In & nbsp; 1937, he was arrested as a member of anti-Soviet right-wing organizations. In & nbsp; June 1938, the former People's Commissar was shot.

Valerian Dovgalevsky became the last People's Commissar of Posts and & nbsp; Telegraphs of the RSFSR: in & nbsp; 1923 this post was abolished. Dovgalevsky & nbsp; switched to & nbsp; diplomatic work: he was the plenipotentiary of the USSR in & nbsp; Sweden, Japan and & nbsp; France. In & nbsp; in particular, in & nbsp; 1932, he & nbsp; signed the Soviet-French non-aggression pact. Against the & nbsp; background of the rest of the Commissars of Communications, he was lucky: “ just something '' died of & nbsp; bowel cancer in & nbsp; a French clinic in & nbsp; 1934 & nbsp; year.

The first People's Commissar of Posts and & nbsp; Telegraphs of the USSR in & nbsp; 1923 was Ivan Nikitich Smirnov , a Bolshevik who was in conflict with & nbsp; Lenin himself. For & nbsp; participation in & nbsp; anti-Stalinist opposition in & nbsp; 1927, he was removed from the & nbsp; post and & nbsp; sent to & nbsp; link, but then returned, entrusting the post of head of the Office of New Buildings of the People's Commissariat of Heavy Industry of the USSR. In & nbsp; 1933 he was arrested again, and Smirnov did not deny his opposition line. For & nbsp; it was sentenced to & nbsp; five years. In & nbsp; 1936, the former People's Commissar became a defendant in the First Moscow Trial, was sentenced to & nbsp; execution and & nbsp; executed.

Nikolay Antipov, former chairman of the Petrograd & nbsp; Cheka , headed the People's Commissariat of Posts and & nbsp; Telegraphs in & nbsp; 1928 & nbsp; year. After working in & nbsp; positions for about three years, went up the & nbsp; career ladder, becoming in & nbsp; 1935 Deputy Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR. But & nbsp; the curse retained its effectiveness: in & nbsp; 1937 Antipov was arrested. After testifying on & nbsp; many friends, acquaintances and & nbsp; colleagues, he & nbsp; was shot in & nbsp; July 1938 & nbsp; year.

The emblem of the People's Commissariat of Communications. Public domain photo

Conveyor belt: appointed, sentenced, executed

For Alexey Ivanovich Rykov the post of People's Commissar of Posts and & nbsp; Telegraphs was a real fall, because after Lenin's death he was the chairman of the Council of People's Commissars, then & nbsp; is the head of government. In & nbsp; 1929 Rykov was declared a “ right deviator '' and, despite & nbsp; repentance, in 1930 they lowered.

Under Rykov, the People's Commissariat of Posts and Telegraphs was renamed the People's Commissariat of Communications. But, despite & nbsp; the fact that the former head of the Council of People's Commissars no longer allowed himself to deviate from the & nbsp; general line, in & nbsp; February 1937 he was arrested. In the spring of 1938 Rykov was shot.

Genrikh Yagoda , who replaced Rykov in the & nbsp; post of the People's Commissar, perfectly understood what this meant, because he got into the & nbsp; Commissars of Communication from the post of the head of the NKVD. Yagoda was arrested just a month after Rykov, and & nbsp; they were tried & nbsp; in & nbsp; within the same process. Both Commissars of Communications were executed at the & nbsp; Kommunarka training ground with a & nbsp; difference of & nbsp; a few minutes.

Innokenty Khalepsky was a career soldier who headed the Communications Department of the Red Army. The commander of the 2nd rank came to the People's Commissariat of Communications with the & nbsp; position of the chief of armaments of the Red Army and & nbsp; originally served as the Deputy People's Commissar. In & nbsp; April 1937 he was approved as the People's Commissar of Communications of the USSR. In & nbsp; August, Khalepsky was transferred to the & nbsp; position of the Special Commissioner of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR for & nbsp; communications, and & nbsp; in & nbsp; November 1937, arrested on & nbsp; charges of & nbsp; participation in & nbsp; military-fascist conspiracy. In & nbsp; July 1938, Khalepsky was sentenced to & nbsp; death and & nbsp; shot.

Matvey Berman , who replaced Khalepsky, was the deputy people's commissar of the NKVD under Yagoda, one of the & nbsp; first chiefs and & nbsp; founders of the GULAG. Black mark worked flawlessly: in & nbsp; December 1938, he & nbsp; was arrested. In & nbsp; March 1939, Berman was convicted and & nbsp; shot.

Ordered to survive: how Ivan Peresypkin became the first communications marshal

In & nbsp; May 1939, a native of Gorlovka Ivan Peresypkin was appointed to the post of Commissar of Communications of the USSR, before & nbsp; this was the deputy head of the RKKA Communications Department.

The 34-year-old colonel was sure that he would suffer the same fate as all his predecessors. Perhaps this would & nbsp; and & nbsp; have happened, but & nbsp; the period of the Great Terror ended, and & nbsp; the approaching war required people with & nbsp; high professional qualities in leadership positions. Peresypkin was just such and & nbsp; turned out to be. In & nbsp; July 1941, the People's Commissar was urgently summoned to & nbsp; Stalin … The leader announced that from this moment Peresypkin will combine the duties of Commissar of Communications with the & nbsp; posts of Deputy Commissar of Defense of the USSR and & nbsp; Head of the Main Directorate of Communications of the Red Army.

Ivan Terentyevich Peresypkin. Photo from the public domain

He personally went to the front & nbsp; more than 20 & nbsp; times, solving the problems of operational provision of communications to the troops. In & nbsp; 1944, Peresypkin became the first marshal of the signal troops in & nbsp; Soviet history.

Ivan Terentyevich lived to be & nbsp; 74 & nbsp; years old and & nbsp; died a natural death in & nbsp; 1978 & nbsp; year. The curse of the Commissariat of Communications was finally lifted. Having replaced Peresypkin Konstantin Sergeychuk , who became the first Minister of Communications of the USSR, he also did without tribunals and & nbsp; shootings, ending his life in the rank of a personal pensioner of union significance. And & nbsp; further, the post of Minister of Communications no longer & nbsp; concealed in itself a mortal threat for those who occupy it.

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